Harvesting Security: China’s Food Challenges and Resilience Approach

In the face of escalating challenges, China confronts a pivotal moment in securing its food future. This article delves into the nation’s unique approach, exploring the intricacies of China’s food challenges and the innovative strategies employed to bolster resilience.

China has achieved a record-high grain output for the 20th consecutive year, with an annual production exceeding 695 million tons. However, despite this impressive production, there are concerns about the country’s food self-sufficiency due to its heavy reliance on imports for certain food items.

While the government aims to stabilize the production of key grains like rice, corn, and soybeans to ensure a grain output above 650 million tons in 2024, there are indications that self-sufficiency in “food rations” (typically referring to rice and wheat) may not extend to a self-sufficient supply for the entire population. Importantly, other essential foodstuffs such as corn, sorghum, and legumes reportedly still need to be imported in significant quantities.

The report from the Institute of Rural Development of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences raises concerns about a potential grain gap of around 130 million tons by 2025, representing approximately 20% of the projected 2024 output. This suggests that China may face challenges in meeting its domestic food demand solely through its production capabilities, necessitating substantial imports to bridge the gap.

Food security is a critical issue for any nation, and China’s situation underscores the importance of not only achieving high grain production but also addressing potential gaps in self-sufficiency for a diverse range of food items. Economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors can influence a country’s ability to maintain stable food supplies.


Food self-sufficiency rate drops

China, as the world’s largest food importer, faces escalating concerns about its food security, despite achieving a record-high grain output for the 20th consecutive year. While official statistics claim an annual grain production exceeding 650 million tons, reports reveal that over one-third of China’s food supply now relies on imports. Last year, the country imported 140 million tons of grain, significantly surpassing its total grain output of 680 million tons. Over the past two decades, China’s food self-sufficiency rate has plummeted from 93.6% in 2000 to 65.8%. This decline is attributed to various factors, including the conversion of agricultural land for urbanization and industrial purposes, resulting in a loss of 5% of agricultural land over the last decade. The impact extends globally, as China’s demand for food imports contributes to one-third to two-thirds of global deforestation. Specific commodities, such as soybeans, exhibit a substantial decline in self-sufficiency, dropping from 62.4% in 2000 to 16.6% two decades later. As China grapples with these challenges, experts predict more severe threats to food security in the next decade due to ongoing rural urbanization and evolving dietary patterns. These dynamics underscore the complexity of China’s food security landscape, necessitating a comprehensive approach to address the multifaceted factors influencing its ability to sustainably feed its population.

Increment in land, and labour costs

In China, the economic dynamics shaping its industrial and agricultural sectors reveal contrasting scenarios. While cheap labour has been a pivotal factor propelling the growth of the manufacturing industry, the agricultural landscape presents a different picture. Official Chinese data indicates that the costs associated with labour and land for grain cultivation in China far exceed those in the United States. This disparity is notable, with the cost of wheat cultivation per acre in China reaching nearly 1,000 yuan (approximately $140.69), significantly higher than the U.S. equivalent of 318 yuan (approximately $44.74), as reported by Xinhua. This discrepancy underscores the unique challenges facing China’s agricultural sector, where cost factors contribute to a complex economic environment. While cheap labour has been a driving force in industrial development, the agricultural sphere grapples with higher production expenses, raising questions about the sustainability and competitiveness of China’s grain cultivation in the global context.

Reliance on imported food

China’s food security is intricately tied to a select group of nations, with a particular reliance on the United States, Canada, and Australia, all of which are perceived to carry significant geopolitical risks. The Chinese government disclosed that the U.S. stands as the leading contributor to China’s grain imports, constituting 37.3% of the total. This heavy dependence on a few key suppliers underscores vulnerabilities in China’s food supply chain, as geopolitical tensions or disruptions in these countries could impact its access to essential food resources.

In response to these risks, China has actively pursued efforts to diversify its sources of food imports. Collaborative initiatives have been established with over 140 countries and regions, aiming to enhance the resilience of China’s food supply.

Climate change

Despite efforts to diversify its food sources, China continues to grapple with significant challenges in ensuring food security. The rising demand for high-value and high-protein products, coupled with increasing per capita income, poses a strain on the nation’s ability to meet diverse dietary needs. Limitations in land and water supply further compound these challenges, presenting obstacles to sustainable food production.

The structure of small farms in China, along with an ageing rural population, adds complexity to the agricultural landscape. These factors hinder the adoption of advanced technologies and more efficient farming practices. Moreover, extreme weather events, intensified by climate change, pose a serious threat to food production and distribution. Recent studies highlight that extreme rainfall has resulted in an 8% decrease in China’s rice crop yields over the past two decades, accentuating existing concerns about food security.

The landscape of challenges extends beyond weather-related issues, as frequent pest shocks, severe droughts, and the impact of rising carbon emissions contribute to the complexity of China’s food security concerns.


As part of its ambitious 14th Five-Year Plan, China has embarked on a significant initiative to bolster domestic grain production, targeting an increase of an additional 50 million tonnes. The success of this campaign is crucial for ensuring food security in the nation. To fortify farmers’ resilience to climate challenges, the Chinese government has introduced a series of new policies and measures.

One key aspect of this initiative involves harnessing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to enhance disaster prevention and mitigation capabilities. By leveraging advanced technologies, China aims to strengthen its response mechanisms to natural disasters, safeguarding agricultural productivity from the adverse impacts of climate-related events.

In addition, the initiative emphasizes the optimization of germplasm resources, a critical component for sustainable agriculture. This involves strategic management of plant genetic materials to enhance crop resilience and adaptability to changing environmental conditions.

The establishment of seed banks is another noteworthy measure, aiming to preserve and safeguard diverse plant varieties. Seed banks play a crucial role in maintaining biodiversity and ensuring access to resilient crop varieties that can withstand evolving climate challenges.

To provide economic support to grain producers, especially in regions facing food deficiencies, the implementation of full-cost insurance is a significant step. This ensures that farmers are financially protected against risks associated with crop failures or other adverse events, promoting long-term sustainability in agriculture.

Furthermore, efforts to prevent the conversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes underscore a commitment to preserving vital agricultural resources. This measure seeks to maintain the integrity of available land for food production, preventing urbanization and industrialization from encroaching on essential farming areas.