During World War II, the M4 Sherman, also known as the Medium Tank, M4, was the most effective medium tank deployed by the U.S. and its Western Allies. Tank destroyers, armoured recovery vehicles, and self-propelled artillery were among the armoured vehicles that sprang from the M4 Sherman. It was widely recognised for its dependability, affordability, and mass manufacture. Lend-Lease supplied the Soviet Union and the British Commonwealth with a significant quantity of M4 Shermans. Although the gun-pointing system only used a one-axis gyrostabilizer, it helped keep the target aligned when the tank stopped firing.
A balanced size and weight profile, robustness, standardised parts and ammunition over a small range of variants, and a strong emphasis on reliability were among the design considerations for the M4 Sherman. These factors were considered to ensure operational effectiveness on the battlefield, enable transportation, and comply with current bridging equipment size and weight restrictions. The tank’s name honours General William Tecumseh Sherman of the American Civil War and underscores its historical importance as a resolute member of the Allied armoured forces during World War II.
The M4 Sherman has several models that have different but equally useful qualities. Its measurements vary from 19 feet 2 inches to 20 feet 7 inches in length, 8 feet 7 inches to 9 feet 10 inches in width, and 9 feet 0 inches to 9 feet 9 inches in height. Its mass ranges from 66,800 to 84,000 pounds. The tank has a crew of five, consisting of a commander, gunner, loader, driver, and assistant driver/bow gunner. The thickness of the armour ranges from 12.7 to 177.8 mm. With a powerful primary armament, the M3 75 mm gun, M1A1, M1A1C, M1A2 76 mm gun, or the M4 105 mm howitzer are available as alternatives.
Two Browning M2HB machine guns in.50 calibre and two Browning M1919A4 machine guns in.30 calibre are used as secondary weaponry. Model-specific differences exist in the engine types, with power output varying from 350 to 450 horsepower. Depending on the version, the tank’s power-to-weight ratio ranges from 10.46 to 13.49 horsepower per short tonne. The tank is driven by a Spicer manual synchromesh gearbox with five forward and one backward gear, which is supported by either horizontal (HVSS) or vertical valve spring suspension (VVSS).
The M4 Sherman can travel 100–150 miles on roads and 60–100 miles across cross-country terrain with a fuel capacity of 138–175 U.S. gallons. Depending on the version, the top speeds on the road are between 22 and 30 mph and 15 and 20 mph, respectively.
The U.S. Army produced seven major versions of the M4 Sherman tank throughout its 50,000-unit production run: the M4, M4A1, M4A2, M4A3, M4A4, M4A5, and M4A6. These designations did not signify a linear evolution; instead, they indicated changes in fuel, production site, or engine type.
The M4 Sherman was improved in many ways during manufacture, such as having a more powerful 76mm cannon with a higher muzzle velocity, “wet” ammunition storage, an engine that was more potent, and thicker armour. A variety of specialised M4 Sherman types appeared after these primary variations. While some, like the M4A3E2 Jumbo Sherman, had improved armour and a more robust turret, others were equipped with a 105mm howitzer rather than the typical 75mm gun.
The purpose of the Jumbo Sherman was to support breakout operations in Normandy by attacking fortifications. Shermans armed with the R3 flamethrower and Duplex Drive for amphibious operations were two other modifications. Tanks fitted with this kind of incendiary weapon were called “Zippos,” a reference to the famous lighter, and were commonly used to blow out opposing bunkers.
In October 1942, the Sherman tank participated in the Second Battle of El Alamein alongside the British Army, marking its first combat experience. Following that month, American soldiers brought the Sherman to North Africa. The M4s and M4A1s rapidly supplanted the older M3 Lee in American armour formations as the North Africa war went on. These versions continued to be the main versions until the powerful 500-horsepower M4A3 arrived later in 1944.
Throughout the war, the Sherman was competitive with the medium Panzer IV series and initially outclassed the German tanks it encountered in North Africa. However, it soon became apparent during the June 1944 Normandy landings that the Sherman’s 75mm cannon could not easily pierce the stronger Panther and Tiger tanks’ frontal armour. The quick upgrading that followed saw the arrival of the high-velocity 76mm cannon. Despite this improvement, the Sherman was still vulnerable to the Panther and Tiger, especially at longer ranges. As American armour groups used better tactics and coordinated with tank destroyers, their adaptability and effectiveness increased. Their combined efforts enabled them to overcome the limits of the Sherman and produce successful results in combat.
Sherman tank fights were uncommon in the Pacific zone, but they proved to be superior. Even early Shermans with 75mm guns were able to establish battlefield control since the Japanese rarely used armour stronger than light tanks. Many Shermans who had served in the United States after World War II went on to participate in the Korean Conflict. In the 1950s, the Patton series eventually took the Sherman’s position, but the Sherman was still in widespread use throughout the world in the 1970s, serving in a variety of military capacities.